Tuesday, 28 February 2017

PROTON

1.   Sesiapa yang mengutuk kenderaan Proton, saya cadangkan agar teruskan mengutuk kerana tahap kenderaan Proton tidak sama dengan tahap kenderaan dari luar negara.

2.   Saya cadangkan kepada mereka cuba uji pandu kenderaan Saga dan Persona terbaharu.

3.   Saya pernah pandu kereta buatan Korea pada tahun 80-an dan kereta terbaharu dan terdapat perbezaan ketara.

4.   Saya dapati terdapat banyak perbezaan antara kereta Proton lama dan kereta Proton baharu.

5.  Saya fikir pihak pengurusan, jurutera dan pekerja di Proton harus diberikan pujian untuk penambah baikan ini.

6.   Jika anda tidak bersetuju dengan saya, tidak mengapa tetapi saya memiliki dan memandu kereta Proton lama dan miliki kereta Proton baharu. Saya rasa Proton telah mempelajari perkara baharu mengenai pembuatan kereta.

7.   Secara jujur, Malaysia akan menjadi lebih baik jika kekal dalam koloni Eropah atau negara maju lain. Mereka lebih arif mengenai pengurusan negara dan pembangunan negara. Dan, mereka akan menghasilkan kereta yang lebih baik, membuatkan kita bangga dengan teknologi kita.

Sumber ; Blog Chedet
Ditulis oleh : Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
Diterjemah oleh : Teratai Melur
E-mel : terataigenius@gmail.com

Tuesday, 21 February 2017

PROTON

1.  Saya merasa sedih kerana Proton akan dijual kepada syarikat asing. Mempunyai rakan strategik memang bagus tetapi apabila Proton telah dijual kepada orang asing, ia tidak lagi menjadi kereta nasional, ia akan menjadi menghasilkan kereta asing di Malaysia seperti yang kita pernah hasilkan sejak 1970-an lagi.

2.   Mungkin, sekarang Proton tidak untung lagi tetapi Proton pernah memberikan keuntungan besar sebelum ini. Diakui, Proton dilindungi tetapi setelah Proton dapat berdiri sendiri, Proton tetap memberikan keuntungan. Semua negara melindungi industri automotif mereka. Mungkin cara yang digunakan bukan menerusi duti import yang tinggi tetapi menggunakan cara berbeza bagi menghalang kereta import mencabar industri kereta tempatan. Ini termasuk terdapat cara yang lebih efektif dan dapat menangani kereta buatan asing. Sebab inilah, Proton tidak dapat dieksport ke negara yang mengamalkan polisi ini. Kita amat pemurah. Sesiapa pun boleh mengeksport kereta negara mereka ke negara ini. Kereta sub-standard pun boleh diimport.

3.   Saya tidak lagi bersama Proton. Sejak itu, saya tidak dibenarkan berjumpa atau bercakap atau menelefon pekerja Proton.

4.   Tak mengapa.

5.   Saya cuma takut jika Malaysia tidak lagi memiliki Proton, industri automotif Malaysia akan mengalami kerugian besar.

6.   Pihak vendor dan pihak pembekal akan tutup kedai. Ramai pekerja akan kehilangan kerja. Dan, kepakaran kejuruteraan Malaysia akan dikurangkan. Malaysia tidak mungkin tidak boleh menjadi negara maju menjelang 2020 atau selepas 2020. Malaysia akan kekal menjadi negara membangun dunia ketiga.

7.   Pada suatu dahulu, Malaysia pernah digelar Harimau Asian, kini Malaysia tidak boleh menjadi anak kucing. Kita telah menjadi salah satu negara dalam 10 negara paling tinggi mengamalkan rasuah.

Syabas! Najib

Ditulis oleh : Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
Tarikh : 22hb Februari 2017
Diterjemah oleh : Teratai Melur
E-mel : terataigenius@gmail.com

Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Fidel: The truth about his struggle


Image result for fidel castro


Since the death of Fidel Castro on Nov 25, I have been trying to assess how far sections of the mainstream media (MSM) would go in their vicious campaign to denigrate and demean a leader who had defied the world's sole military superpower just 145km from his small island state. Since the MSM knwe that Fidel's remarkable resistance to US hegemony would be highlighted in tributes to the man, they decided to tarnish his image by presenting him as a womaniser with an insatiable appetite for sex. A number of newpapers played up the ludicrous story of how Fidel had slept with 35,000 women. The MSM is fully aware that it is this fort of scurrilous lie that will divert attention from his stupendous achievements as a principled, resolute champion of justice.
This preposterous tale was often justaposed in the MSM with a more serious allegation of how Fidel had crushed dissent when he was in power. While all of us value dissent, its character and its role in a particular setting can olny be understood if one appreciates the overall context. Since the Cuban Revolution of 1959, the US elite sought to overthrow the Fidel government. There was the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961; a total economic blockade imposed in the same year which is still in force; terrorist attacks in Cuba; and hundreds of attempts to assassinate Fidel. No leader and no nation have been subjcted to such threats for such a long time. It explains why the Cuban leadership was often forced to act against individuals and groups who in the guise of dissent were subverting the Revolution.
The MSM have seldom paid attention to this organised subversion and de-stabilisation of a small, independent, sovereign state by a superpower which characterised most of Fidel's period in office, first as prime minister and then as president. What was behind this subversion? Was Cuba a threat to the US? Did Fidel seek to destroy the US?
The main reason for the hostility of the US elite towards Fidel was because he and his comrades had through a popular movement ousted a US puppet in Havana, Fulgencio Batista, and established a government that was determined to safeguard its independence and sovereignty and ensure that the Cuban people shaped their own destiny. In his passionate desire to protect the right of his people to determine their own future, Fidel was in the same category as Mossadegh of Iran, Lumumba of the Congo, and Sukarno of Indonesia, among others. But for the US elite, this commitment to a nation's independence, a people's sovereignty, was an unpardonable sin which had to be punished.
The continuing imposition of an economic blockade against Cuba is part of the punishment. Other countries in Latin America do not condone the US attitude towards Cuba which is why it has found itself increasingly isolated in the region in recent years. It explains to a great extent why President Obama had no choice but to restore diplomatic ties with Cuba in July 2015.
In fact, the whole world does not approve of the US's stance towards Cuba. For a number of years now, the vast majority of nation-states have asked the US to end the economic blockade of Cuba. At the recent 2016 UN General Assembly, 191 states voted against the blockade. Only two countries – US and Israel – abstained.
The UN vote is, in a sense, an indirect endorsement of Cuba's desire to preserve its independence and sovereignty. This is Fidel's greatest achievement. He had not only succeeded in the face of huge odds to protect his people's independence. He had also persuaded the human family to recognise the central significance of this principle. It is not just countries in the Global South with their colonial background that should uphold their independence, whatever the costs and consequences. Even countries in the Global North faced with the challenge of US control and dominance, should assert their independence.
If Fidel's struggle to assert his nation's independence resonates with people elsewhere, it is because it was accompanied by a gigantic effort to improve the well-being of the ordinary Cuban. With almost 100% literacy, Cuba has a comprehensive education system which is free right up to the tertiary level. Its much lauded health care programme sustained through neighbourhood clinics, polyclinics and hospitals provides free, good quality health care service to its entire population. The Cuban ratio of one doctor for 159.2 persons is among the best in the world and its under 5 infant mortality of six deaths per 1,000 live births equals that of developed societies in the West.
Under Fidel, Cuba had also developed a reputation as a leader in medical research. It has pioneered new vaccines and made significant advances in the study of certain types of cancer. It is largely because of its solid scientific base that Cuba has emerged as a major player in the field of biotechnology.
It is its emphasis upon science that enabled Cuba in the nineties when it was undergoing grave economic difficulties following the collapse of the Soviet Union, to convert its fertiliser and pesticide dependent agricultural sector into organic agriculture. Today, its organic agriculture is one of the pillars of its economy. It is perhaps the first nation in the world to have transformed its agricultural base in this manner on such a vast scale.
It is equally significant that the Cuban economy organised through state and municipal corporations, cooperatives and collectives in agriculture, commerce and industry has up to this point succeeded in keeping income differentials to the minimum. There is no privileged economic class in Cuba. It is a society where egalitarianism is the order of the day.
This is due in part to Fidel's determined endeavour to ensure that those who were entrusted with more power and authority than others did not abuse their position. While he was in power, he strove to curb corruption. His own simple, unostentatious lifestyle set the right example for others in the leadership stratum.
Fidel's other outstanding accomplishment was the eradication of racial and cultural discrimination. A deeply segregated society before the 1959 Revolution with whites enjoying privilege and prestige, Cuba today is one of the most harmonious multiracial and multi-cultural societies in the world with equal opportunities for blacks, meztizos (people of mixed ancestry) whites and minority groups. The various professions and social life reflect the integration of Cuban society.
Gender equality was also at the top of Fidel's national agenda. Not only are there equal opportunities for women in the workplace, in a number of critical professions there are in fact more women than men. A total of 56% of all doctors are female. Women constitute 36% of the National Assembly and are well represented at all levels and in all spheres of public-decision making.
In evaluating Fidel's record, one cannot overlook his patronage of the arts and culture. Musicians, dancers and film-makers have carved a niche for themselves in the international arena. Indeed, the various facets of Cuban culture, already vibrant before the Revolution, have become even more dynamic since 1959.
The same can be said about sports. From baseball to boxing, from athletics to cycling, sports as a whole figure prominently in the life of the nation.
It is not just in the domestic sphere that Cuba has registered spectacular success. For Fidel, reaching out to the poor and needy beyond Cuban shores was always in the forefront of his struggle. Thousands of Cuban doctors, nurses and other medical personnel have served in other parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. Cuba also offers medical training to students from other countries and has established medical schools in other Caribbean and Latin American countries. There is perhaps no better proof of how much Cuba's humanitarian medical assistance means to people in other countries than its Operation Miracle programme through which Cuban ophthalmologists have restored the vision of tens of thousands of mostly poor people in Latin America and the Caribbean.
There is another dimension to Fidel's involvement with other countries that the MSM had manipulated to malign the man. Fidel was ever willing to send his soldiers to fight against oppression in other lands. Cuban soldiers fought against the South African apartheid regime in Angola forcing out the aggressors and compelling them to leave illegally occupied Namibia. The defeat of the apartheid regime especially in the decisive battle of Cuito Cuanavale shattered the myth of white supremacy and inspired the South African people in their struggle against apartheid. As Nelson Mandela himself put it, "during all my years in prison, Cuba was an inspiration and Fidel Castro a tower of strength – (they) destroyed the myth of the invincibility of the white oppressor and inspired the fighting masses of South Africa – a turning point for the liberation of our continent – and of my people – from the scourge of apartheid. What other country can point to a record of greater selflessness than Cuba has displayed in its relations with Africa?"
Whether it is in the international arena or on the home front, Fidel's selfless service and sacrifice had no equivalent. This does not mean that there were no shortcomings in his governance. He made mistakes, some more serious than others. For instance, he made the grievous error of equating small and medium sized businesses with capitalist enterprises and sought to eliminate them to the detriment of the Cuban economy. His view of private property had some of the rigidity of Marxist dogma.
Nonetheless, if one considered the larger picture, Fidel's contribution to Cuba and the world was immense. For centuries to come, people will remember his resistance to the unjust and arrogant power of the mighty and how he bestowed the Cuban masses – and indeed the poor and oppressed everywhere – with dignity and self-respect.

Before he died, Fidel had expressed the wish that his name and likeness should never be used "on institutions, streets, parks or other public sites and that busts, statues and other forms of tribute" should never be erected. He will not need them. For Fidel will live forever in the heart of humanity, an eternal inspiration for all those who yearn for justice and dignity.


Written by : Chandra Muzaffar
Date : 14 December 2016


Fidel: Kebenaran mengenai perjuangan beliau

Image result for fidel castro

Apabila Fidel meninggal dunia pada Nov 25, saya cuba menilai sejauh manakah media arus perdana (MSM) akan berusaha menjalankan kempen yang berniat jahat untuk memperkecil-kecilkan dan merendahkan martabat pemimpin yang telah menentang dengan berani kuasa besar dunia yang hanya terletak sejauh 145km daripada negaranya yang bersaiz kecil. MSM mengetahui penentangan luar biasa Fidel terhadap hegemoni AS akan diketengahkan sebagai penghormatan kepada beliau. Mereka akan mencemarkan imej beliau dengan menunjukkan beliau kaki perempuan. Beberapa surat khabar mensensasikan perkara ini. MSM menyedari penipuan seumpama ini dapat mengalihkan pandangan dunia daripada pencapaian beliau yang menakjubkan seorang yang sebagai berprinsip dan menegakkan keadilan.

Kisah tidak munasabah sering kali ditunjukkan dalam media arus perdana dengan tuduhan bernada serius mengenai bagaimana Fidel telah menghapuskan pihak yang menentangnya ketika beliau berkuasa. Walaupun kita menyokong penentangan, alasan untuk penentangan mudah difahami jika keseluruhan konteks penentangan difahami. Sejak Revolusi Cuba 1959, pihak elit AS berusaha untuk menjatuhkan kerajaan Fidel. Berlaku pencerobohan Bay of Pigs pada tahun 1961; sekatan ekonomi dikenakan pada tahun yang sama masih kekal hingga hari ini; serangan pengganas di Cuba; dan ratusan cubaan membunuh Fidel. Tiada ada seorang pemimpin dan tiada sebuah negara diancam sebegitu lama. Ini menjelaskan tujuan kepimpinan Cuba yang terpaksa bertindak terhadap individu dan kumpulan yang bertindak secara diam-diam untuk memesongkan tujuan asal Revolusi.

MSM sering tidak mengendahkan cubaan pemesongan yang sedang dilakukan oleh organisasi kuasa besar ini terhadap negara yang kecil serta berdikari. Usaha ini banyak berlaku pada era pemerintahan Fidel sebagai perdana menteri pertama dan kemudian sebagai presiden pertama.

Sebab utama permusuhan golongan elit AS terhadap Fidel ialah beliau dan angkatan beliau terkenal dengan gerakan yang berjaya menggulingkan kerajaan boneka di Havana iaitu Fulgencio Batista dan menubuhkan kerajaan yang dapat menjaga kemerdekaan dan kedaulatan Cuba serta memastikan rakyat Cuba menentukan nasib mereka. Matlamat beliau untuk melindungi hak rakyat beliau meletakkan beliau sebaris dengan Mossadegh dari Iran, Lumumba dari Congo dan Sukarno dari Indonesia. Akan tetapi bagi elit AS, komitmen seumpama ini bagi sebuah negara merdeka adalah dosa yang tidak boleh dimaafkan dan mesti dihukum.  

Sekatan ekonomi di Cuba dipanjangkan sebagai sebahagian daripada hukuman. Negara lain di Amerika Latin tidak membiarkan tindak-tanduk AS menyebabkan AS terpinggir dan keseorangan di rantau itu. Ini menjelaskan tujuan Obama terpaksa menjalankan hubungan diplomatik dengan Cuba pada Julai 2015.

Dunia tidak menerima pendirian AS. Majoriti negara meminta AS menghentikan sekatan ekonomi Cuba. Di Persidangan Agung PBB 2016, 191 buah negara menentang sekatan ini, cuma dua buah negara yang terkecuali - AS dan Israel.

Undian di PBB merupakan usaha menyokong keinginan Cuba mengekalkan kemerdekaan dan kedaulatan negaranya. Inilah kejayaan terbesar Fidel. Beliau tidak hanya berjaya mengharungi halangan besar bagi melindungi kemerdekaan rakyatnya malah beliau turut telah berjaya memujuk semua orang mengiktiraf kepentingan prinsip beliau. Bukan negara di bahagian Selatan Amerika yang mempunyai sejarah pemerintahan kolonial yang ingin mempertahankan kemerdekaan mereka, negara di bahagian utara turut menghadapi cabaran AS yang ingin mengawal dan mendominasi negara mereka, harus mengekalkan kemerdekaan mereka.

Jika perjuangan Fidel bagi mengekalkan kemerdekaan rakyatnya mendapat sokongan rakyatnya kerana ia disertai dengan usaha berskala besar untuk meningkatkan taraf hidup rakyat Cuba. Hampir 100% rakyat Cuba celik huruf, Cuba mempunyai sistem pendidikan komprehensif yang diberikan percuma hingga ke peringkat tinggi. Program kesihatan Cuba memberikan perkhidmatan percuma serta berkualiti kepada keseluruhan rakyat negara Cuba. Nisbah satu doktor bagi setiap 159.2 penduduk merupakan antara terbaik dan kematian bayi lahir bagi setiap 1,000 kelahiran adalah 6. Ini meletakkan Cuba sebaris dengan masyarakat maju.

Di bawah pemerintahan Fidel, Cuba telah muncul reputasi sebagai peneraju kajian perubatan. Cuba menjadi perintis bagi vaksin dan memajukan lagi kajian bagi beberapa jenis kanser. Kemajuan ini hasil daripada asas saintifik kukuh yang telah menyumbang Cuba muncul sebagai pemain utama dalam bidang bioteknologi.

Kepentingan terhadap sains yang membolehkan Cuba yang sedang melalui masalah ekonomi pada tahun 90-an berikutan keruntuhan Kesatuan Soviet telah menukar sektor pertanian yang menggunakan baja dan racun kimia kepada pertanian organik. Hari ini, pertanian organik telah menjadi kekuatan ekonomi. Mungkin juga Cuba ialah negara pertama di dunia yang menukar amalan pertanian kepada pertanian organik dengan skala besar. 

Kepentingan juga diberikan kepada ekonomi Cuba yang disusun menerusi koperasi negeri dan majis perbandaran telah berjaya mengecilkan jurang pendapatan pada kadar miniumum. Tiada keistimewaan kelas ekonomi. Ia mengamalkan konsep masyarakat egalitarianisme.

Cara ini merupakan cara Fidel memastikan pegawai yang berkuasa tidak menyalah gunakan kuasa mereka. Beliau berusaha menghapuskan rasuah. Beliau menjalani kehidupan biasa bagi menjadi contoh kepada lapisan pemimpin.

Kejayaan beliau lain adalah beliau telah menghapuskan diskriminasi kaum dan diskriminasi budaya. Sebelum Revolusi 1959, Cuba ialah negara kuat mengamalkan diskriminasi masyarakat. Namun, hari ini Cuba ialah salah satu masyarakat aman di dunia dengan pelbagai kaum dan pelbagai kebudayaan dengan kesama rataan bagi rakyatnya.

Kesama rataan gender juga menjadi agenda utama dalam agenda negara Fidel. Bukan sahaja terdapat peluang sama rata diberikan kepada wanita di tempat kerja malah bilangan wanita lebih ramai daripada lelaki dalam bidang kritikal - 56% doktor ialah wanita. Wanita juga mewakili 36% di Persidangan Negara yang diwakili dalam semua peringkat dan mengambil bahagian pada peringkat membuat keputusan.

Siapa yang boleh lupa akan sumbangan beliau untuk dalam bidang kesenian dan kebudayaan. Ahli musik, penari dan pembuat filem berjaya mengukir nama mereka di peringkat antarabangsa. Begitu juga dalam bidang sukan.

Fidel sentiasa mengutamakan golongan kurang kemampuan dalam perjuangan beliau. Ribuan pegawai perubatan Cuba berkhidmat di bahagian Amerika Latin, Afrika dan Asia. Cuba juga menawarkan latihan perubatan kepada pelajar dari negara lain dan berjaya menubuhkan pusat pengajian perubatan di negara lain. Bukti bantuan kemanusiaan perubatan Cuba menerusi program Operation Miracle bertujuan membantu orang lain di negara lain. Menerusi operasi ini, pakar mata Cuba berjaya memulihkan masalah penglihatan bagi puluhan ribu rakyat Cuba yang kebanyakan ialah golongan pendapatan rendah di Amerika Latin dan di Caribbean.

Pada peringkat lain, pembabitan Fidel dengan negara lain brjaya dilaksanakna dengan penggunaan MSM. Fidel bertekad mahu menghantar tenteranya menentang penentang di negara lain. Tentera Cuba menentang dasar aparteid di Afrika Selatan di Angola dan berjaya memaksa golongan penentang mengaku kalah dan meninggalkan Namibia yang diduduki secara haram. Kekalahan rejim apartheid dalam pertempuran Cuito Cuanavale melenyapkan mitos kekuasaan orang putih. Ini memberi inspirasi kepada rakyat Afrika Selatan menentang dasar apartheid.

Fidel memberikan khidmat tidak mementingkan diri sendiri yang tiada tandingan. Ini tidak bermakna perjuangan beliau tidak menghadapi masalah. Beliau pernah melakukan kesalahan. Beliau telah melakukan kesalahan dalam meletakkan paras sama rata kepada perniagaan kecil dan sederhana dengan perniagaan kapitalis dan berharap cara ini dapat menghapuskan masalah ekonomi. Pandangan beliau mengenai hartanah persendirian ketegaran dogma Marxist. Jika dilihat secara luas, sumbangan Fidel untuk Cuba dan dunia tidak dapat dinafikan. Rakyat Cuba akan ingat penentangan beliau terhadap ketidak adilan dan keangkuhan kuasa besar dan bagaimana beliau menghargai rakyat Cuba - golongan miskin dan golongan yang ditekan - dihormati dengan penuh maruah.

Sebelum beliau meninggal dunia, Fidel telah menyatakan hasratnya namanya dan apa sahaja yang berkaitan dengan namanya tidak harus digunakan pada institusi, jalan raya, taman atau tempat awam dan patung dan sebarang bentuk penghargaan tidak harus dibina. Beliau tidak memerlukan semua itu. Bagi Fidel, beliau sentiasa hidup selama-lamanya di hati semua orang yang menjadi inspirasi kepada mereka yang dahagakan keadilan dan maruah.



Diterjemah oleh : Teratai Melur
E-mel : terataigenius@gmail.com

**Jika memerlukan khidmat terjemahan, sila e-emelkan maklumat ke alamat e-mel tertera di atas. Terima kasih.

Friday, 10 February 2017

Marvellous mythical beings


Semberani

Creatures of creation and destruction are entrenched in our cultures, writes ninotaziz JUST a month or so ago, my family and I watched the hit Warner Bros movie and yet another exhilarating fantasy adventure from the Harry Potter world created by J K Rowling, Fantastic Beasts And Where to Find Them. Mythical being such as flying horses, dragons, griffins and the all-good unicorn have been with us for the longest time. 

And it’s rather timely that they took centrestage in the movie, subtly echoing the cry for saving our world’s own animals in danger of extinction. 

Lovers of legends and folklore from around the world would know that the idea of using the marvellous and horrifying in storytelling is as old as time itself. Just like in the movies, Greek storyteller Homer used such mythological creatures, some of which included the three-headed Chimera and winged P├ęgasus to great effect. In the Iliad, Homer described the Chimera as “... a thing of immortal make, not human, lion-fronted and serpent behind, a goat in the middle, and snorting out the breath of the terrible flame of bright fire.” 

To those who listened, the Chimera must have sounded so terrifying, the real embodiment of destruction. 

I have always wondered why there’s a need for, and prevalence of, such creatures in legends? What is their purpose? 

But before we explore these questions, we need to be reminded that the Western world does not have the monopoly on such fantastical beings. In our own legends of old, our Hikayat, we too possess our own wondrous beings; beings gifted with the power of strength, wisdom, cunning and yes, destruction too. 

MYTHICAL CREATURES FROM THE HIKAYAT 

With the legends disappearing, there are many stories of mythical animals which are no longer known. It’s a huge pity as our children will only grow up to know of Western giants, ogres, unicorns and wise old owls from other cultures and none from their own, which are rich and inspire creativity. 

In fact, we have many strange and wonderful beings in our legends. From the renowned Book of Kings, Sulalatus Sulatin, also known as Sejarah Melayu, we can read about the horse that lived under the sea and could fly around the world in a single day. The fastest steed of the skies was Farasul Bahri, a Semberani, a flying horse who belonged to no one but answered to the King of Dika, Raja Fatabul Ard, the sove-reign of the sea world in Sejarah Melayu. The only mortal who rode the Semberani was Raja Chulan — grandson of Onang Kiu (daughter of Raja Suran of Gellangui) and father to Sang Sapurba, Sang Meniaka and perhaps the most famous, Sri Tri Buana, or Sang Nila Utama, the founder of Singapore.

Another marvellous creature in our legends is the Bayan bird or Burung Bayan. Today, the story of the Bayan bird is almost totally lost to us in general storytelling. However, in the olden days, the legendary bird was one that brought romantic notions. It was said that when you called the Burung Bayan, it would land on the golden coconut tree in the garden and no other. It would then play the loveliest song of “12 ragam”. 

To invite the Burung Bayan to speak, it must be served seven bits of rice from a golden plate placed on a gold tray. And it was provided a perch to stand on made of gold and the loveliest gemstones while it listened to your request. In Hikayat Malim Dewa for instance, the Burung Bayan came to assist Tuanku Gombang Malim Dewa to find the most beautiful and suitable princess to marry. After many adventures, the king was finally united with Tuan Puteri Andam Dewi. 

UNDER THE SEA 

The Nusantara is surrounded and connected by the sea. Perhaps this is why the Naga is one of the most prevalent mythical animals in every Southeast Asian legend and mythology. Stories involving the Naga King and a princess are familiar in many countries like Vietnam and Laos. 

In Indonesia, specifically during the Srivijaya era, the Telaga Batu inscription featured seven Naga heads on top of a transcription of an allegiance oath, believed to be dated circa 686 CE. Another was found in Ligor dating 775 CE, which described the ruler as being a patron of the Naga.


Naga


In our own epic legends, Merong, as in Merong Mahawangsa, refers to the dragon race or great snake. 

Moving to the east coast, in the Makyong story Endeng Tejali, Nek Sepit Bentala Naga looked after the lovely Puteri Bongsu at Tasik Pauh Janggi in the middle of the sea, which happened to be home to the Naga folk. Meanwhile, in the Wayang Kulit Maharaja Wana, we meet Sepit Bentala Sang Naga Maha Gangga, king of the ocean who refused to help Maharaja Wana pull down the causeway linking the island Langkapuri and the mainland. 

Perhaps one of the most famous Naga stories in Malaysia is that of the mythical Naga Tasik Chini. It is said that a Naga used to reside in Lake Chini in Pahang until the onset of the big flood when the Naga left for the South China Seas. To this day, the existence and whereabouts of the Naga remain a mystery, but continues to fascinate not only Malaysians, but also those around the region. 

TERROR OVER OUR SKIES 

The Indian poet Valmiki gave the world the Garuda. In the Ramayana, Garuda was one of the creatures that came to the aid of Rama in the battle against Ravana. With the influence of Hinduism during pre-Islamic times, the Garuda became a familiar character in our lores. While the Garuda remains the king of the skies in Nusantara mythology, in many instances, the Garuda was the purveyor of destruction.



Garuda

In the early chapters of Merong Mahawangsa, one of our oldest epics tied to the Kedah sultanate, the Garuda was described as being unhappy at the prospect that two great kingdoms of mankind — Rome and China — might unite, and thus he sought to destroy the envoy from Rome in a great battle over Langkapuri. This led to the birth of Kedah, led by Merong Mahawangsa and his generations. 

Likewise, in the Legend of Bidasari, a folklore that used to be immensely popular in Malaysia, The Philippines and Indonesia, the story opens with the scene of Garuda wreaking havoc over mankind. Everything was razed to the ground. This was also a familiar theme in the legend of Malim Dewa. 

A disgruntled suitor of Puteri Andam Dewi sent two garudas to destroy the princess’ kingdom. This provided the hero with the opportunity to save the princess and win her hand. And so, in many of the legends, it would appear that the very chaos the Garuda created helped strengthen the cause and Man’s resolve to overcome all challenges. 


Bayan

Mythical beings in storytelling have been used in many cultures to depict power, evil, beauty, wisdom, cunning and many more attributes of mankind. The Greek had their Homer. We too had our own penglipurlara, storytellers of old, who used mythical beasts and animals as a means of depicting good and bad. There are many more such beings to be shared which are fast disappearing from our corpus of memory. Maybe, by learning about and listening to stories from our wondrous legends — of marvellous and sometimes evil creatures — we might be able to better understand the nature of mankind. And perhaps, even ourselves. 





Source : New Straits Times
Link : http://www.nst.com.my/news/2017/01/201086/marvellous-mythical-beings
Written by : ninot aziz



WATAK MISTIK YANG HEBAT



Semberani


Beberapa lalu, saya dan keluarga menonton filem pengembaraan fantasi terkenal keluaran Warner Bros dan sebuah lagi filem dari dunia Harry Potter hasil nukilan J K Rowling, Fantastic Beasts And Where to Find Them. Elemen mistik seperti kuda terbang, naga, griffin dan unikorn baik sentiasa bersama dengan kita.

Boleh dikatakan sudah tiba masanya untuk watak binatang ini ditengahkan dalam filem sebagai menyahut seruan keperluan menyelamatkan binatang yang diancam kepupusan. 

Para pencinta kisah legenda dan pencinta kisah lama dari seluruh pelusuk dunia pasti tahu idea menggunakan elemen hebat dan menakutkan dalam penceritaan telah lama digunakan. Tukang cerita dari Greek, Homer menggunakan unsur binatang mitos termasuk Chimera  yang berkepala tiga dan Pegasus yang mempunyai sayap dengan baik sekali. Dalam lliad, Homer menggambarkan Chimera sebagai "... sesuatu yang kekal abadi, bukan manusia, berupa seperti singa dan berupa seekor ular di bahagian belakang, berupa seekor kambing di bahagian tengah dan mengeluarkan nafas berupa api yang sedang marak.

Kepada para pendengar, watak Chimera pasti menakutkan dan pemusnah.

Saya sering tertanya-tanya, apakah keperluan mewujudkan watak seperti ini dan kenapakah binatang seperti ini diwujudkan dalam kisah legenda? Apakah tujuan sebenar mereka?.

Sebelum kita menyelami soalan ini, harus diingat bahawa dunia Barat sahaja yang memonopoli watak seperti ini, kisah legenda kita, Hikayat, turut mempunyai watak seperti ini. Watak itu dianugerahkan dengan kekuatan, pintar, licik serta bersifat pemusnah. 

BINATANG MISTIK DARIPADA HIKAYAT

Kini, kisah legenda semakin pupus, menyebabkan banyak kisah mengenai binatang mistik turut hilang dan tidak lagi diketahui. Agak menyedihkan anak-anak kita membesar dengan mengetahui binatang, gergasi unikorn dan burung hantu yang bijaksana dari Barat yang lain budaya tetapi tidak mengetahui elemen seperti itu dalam budaya kita yang juga kaya dengan kreativiti.

Malah, kisah legenda kita turut mengandungi banyak watak pelik serta hebat. Buku yang terkenal seperti Books of Kings, Sulalatus Sulatin yang dikenali sebagai Sejarah Melayu turut menampilkan watak kuda yang tinggal di dalam laut serta mampu terbang ke seluruh dunia dalam sehari.

Kuda yang paling pantas ialah Farasul Bahri, Semberani, kuda terbang tidak bertuan tetapi hanya berbicara dengan Raja Dika, Raja Fatabul Ard, negara berdaulat dunia laut dalam buku Sejarah Melayu. Satu-satunya manusia yang dapat menunggangi Semberani ialah Raja Chulan - cucu kepada Onang Kiu (puteri Raja Suran dari Gellangui) dan ayahanda Sang Sapurba, Sang Meniaka dan mungkin yang terkenal ialah Sri Tri Buana atau Sang Nila Utama, pengasas Singapura.

Satu lagi binatang menakjubkan dalam legenda ialah Burung Bayan. Hari ini, kisah Burung Bayan seolah-olah hilang daripada kisah legenda kita. Dahulu, burung legenda ialah watak yang membawa elemen romantik. Dikatakan apabila diseru Burung Bayan, ia hanya akan menginggap di atas pokok kelapa emas di taman dan akan menyanyikan lagu indah 12 ragam.

Bagi memujuk Burung Bayan bercakap, ia perlu dihidangkan tujuh butir beras di atas pinggan emas yang diletakkan di atas talam emas. Disediakan juga tempat bertenggek diperbuat daripada emas dan permata ketika ia sedang mendengar permohonan kita. Sebagai contoh, dalam Hikayat Malim Dewa, Burung Bayan membantu Tuanku Gombang Malim Dewa mencarikan baginda puteri yang paling cantik dan paling sesuai untuk dikahwini baginda. Setelah mengharungi pelbagai pengembaraan, Baginda berjaya mengahwini Tuan Puteri Andam Dewi.

DASAR LAUT


Naga


Nusantara dikelilingi dan disambung melalui laut. Mungkin ini sebabnya watak naga sering digunakan dalam setiap legenda di Asia Tenggara dan mitologi. Kisah yang mempunyai watak naga dan watak tuan puteri sinonim dalam kisah dari banyak negara seperti Vietnam dan Laos.

Di Indonesia, pada era Srivijaya inskripsi pada Telaga Batu mempunyai naga berkepala tujuh. Di bahagian atas terdapat inskripsi perjanjian taat setia, dipercayai bertarikh sekitar 686 SM. Satu lagi inskripsi ditemui di Ligor bertarikh 775 SM menjelaskan pemerintahnya ialah ketua naga.

Dalam epik legenda kita, watak Merong, dalam kisah Merong Mahawangsa merujuk kepada keluarga naga atau ular raksasa.

Beralih ke pantai timur, dalam kisah Makyong bertajuk Endeng Tejali, Nek Sepit Bentala Naga menjaga Puteri Bongsu yang cantik di Tasik Pauh Janggi yang terletak di tengah-tengah laut yang merupakan tempat tinggal keluarga naga. Sementara itu, watak Sepit Bentala Sang Naga Maha Gangga boleh dilihat. Beliau ialah raja laut yang enggan menolong Maharaja Wana menarik jambatan yang menghubungkan pulau Langkapuri dengan tanah besar.

Mungkin salah satu kisah naga yang terkenal di Malaysia adalah kisah mistikal Naga Tasik Chini. Dikatakan Naga pernah tinggal di Tasik Chini sehingga berlaku banjir besar yang menyebabkan Naga meninggalkan tempat tinggalnya dan berpindah ke Laut China Selatan. Sehingga hari ini, kewujudan dan lokasi Naga itu berada masih menjadi misteri namun ia masih mengagumkan bukan sahaja rakyat Malaysia malah di rakyat rantau ini.

KETAKUTAN DI LANGIT 


Garuda


Valmiki, penyajak India memperkenalkan Garuda kepada dunia. Dalam kisah Ramayana, Garuda ialah salah satu binatang yang membantu Rama dalam pertempurannya dengan Ravana. Maka, telah menjadi tradisi menggunakan watak Garuda. Ini kerana pengarauh Hindu sebelum kedatang Islam ke tanah Melayu. Watak Garuda kekal menjadi raja dalam kisah mitos Nusantara dan turut menceritakan mengenai kemusnahan.

Dalam bab awal buku Merong Mahawangsa, salah satu epik tertua, terikat dengan Kesultanan Kedah, Garuda digambarkan sebagai watak yang tidak gembira dengan kemungkinan penggambungan dua kuasa besar iaitu Rom dan China. Lalu, ia berhasrat ingin memusnahkan rombongan dari Langkasuka dalam pertempuran besar. Pertempuran ini membawa kemunculan Kedah yang diterajui oleh Merong Mahawangsa dan generasinya.

Kisah Legend of Bidasari, sebuah kisah lama yang pernah popular suatu ketika di Malaysia, di Filipina dan di Indonesia. Kisah ini bermula dengan Garuda sedang memusnahkan kehidupan manusia dan segala-galanya. Tema ini turut digunakan dalam legenda Malim Dewa.

Pelamar Puteri Andam Dewi telah menghantar dua ekor garuda untuk memusnahkan kerajaan tuan puteri. Ini memberi peluang kepada hero untuk menyelamatkan tuan puteri dan seterusnya memenangi hatinya. Dalam banyak kisah, watak Garuda akan muncul sebagai pemusnah dan manusia muncul sebagai mengatasi segala cabaran.


Bayan

Watak mistik dalam kisah telah banyak digunakan bagi menggambarkan kuasa, kejahatan, kecantikan, kepandaian, licik dan banyak lagi. Kisah Greek menggunakan watak Homer. Kita mempunyai penglipurlara, pencerita pada zaman dahulu yang menggunakan binatang mistik dan binatang bagi membezakan baik dan jahat.

Terdapat banyak watak yang dapat dikongsi sedang hilang dengan pantas daripada memori kita.

Mungkin menerusi pembacaan dan mendengar kisah legenda - binatang yang hebat yang kadang kala jahat - membuatkan kita lebih memahami sifat manusia dan memahami diri kita.

Diterjemah oleh : Teratai Melur

E-mel : terataigenius@gmail.com
**Jika memerlukan khidmat terjemahan, sila e-mel butir ke alamat e-mel tertera di atas. Terima kasih. 

Tuesday, 7 February 2017

Steam rose at Tanjong Pagar Station

Image result for tanjong pagar station

Terminus: The platform of the venerable train station in Singapore is steeped in histroy, heartbreak and loss

There was certainly a mix of excitement and melancholy when I first saw the historic Tanjong Pagar Station.

Located in Keppel Road, Singapore, the decommisioned railway station was gazetted as a national monument on April 2, 2011, by Singapore's Preservation of Monuments Board.

Built in 1929 bya a French company, the station reminded me of the Helsinki train station in Finland.

When four friends and I decided to tour the place recently, we found, much to our surprise, that the place was deserted.

We had chosen to arrive early to avoid the crowds. These days, the 85-year-old monument is open to visitors only during public holidays.


The venerable old station has been the venue of several major events, most recently the Green Corridor Run, a marathon held along the 10.5km rail corridor from Tanjong Pagar station to Bukit Timah Station.

When there are no activities, the station appears, for all intents and purposes, abandoned.

Before starting my tour in the republic, I had the pleasure of speaking with an elderly man, who told me that Tanjong Pagar Station would always accupy a special place in his heart.

He said the station not only reminded him of his train rides to and from the republic, back when he was younger, but also the mouth-watering Indian cuisine served by two eateries there.

THE PARTING PLATFORM

"Each time we headed to Malaya, we would arrive at the station early to savour the food offerings there.

"The hissing noises from steam engines and the whistles from the steam chimney added to the dining ambience," he recalled.

The eateries he mentioned are long gone, I believe. Exploring the station later, I found a faded signboard on one of the station's walls advertising an eatery run by the Hasan brothers.
The station has also seen its fair share of heartbreak and loss. According to the man, he was there to witness the effects of the separation of Malaya and Singapore in 1965.

"I witnessed the separation of families, friends and even lovers on the station's platform," he said, prompting me to imagine how the scene would have been then.

"Lots of tears were shed there. Many people were seen hugging each other, and others were waving goodbye," he reminisced.

My recollection of the conversation with the man was distracted by the cackling of my friends on the otherwise silent platform. 

My friends soon started taking selfies in various poses, with some even lying on the tracks.

"We wanted to make an album cover," they said, while standing on the iron track that had withstood the rain and heat for all these many years.

INTERESTING BACKGROUND

There was a time when one could accompany passengers to the platform by buying a 20 sen platform ticket. However, since Dec 18, 1988, only passengers were allowed on the platform.
Before the curtains closed on the station, an old bookstore, Habib Railway Book Store, had operated there since its establishment in 1936.


A money changer beside the book shop was operated by the same owner.

There was also a 34-room hotel in the three-storey station, operated for more than six decades by businessman Lim Jit Chin and his family.

During its heyday, the hotel's guests included Malaysia royalty.
In 1992, Lim received recognition from then Guinness Book of Records as the second person in the world to operate a hotel for the longest duration.

I only wished that I could go into the buildings and see them for myself. Alas, they are all locked up now.

The Tanjong Pagar Station was closed after Keretapi Tanah Melayu Bhd agreed to vacate the station and shift operations to the Woodlands Train Checkpoints.

In return, Malaysia was promised six pieces of land in the republic that would be jointly developed with the Singaporean government.
At about 11pm on June 30, 2011, Sultan of Johor Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Iskandar drove the final train out of Tanjong Pagar Station, a historic event witnessed by the peoples of both nations.

By midnight, its ownership reverted to the Singaporean government, and the Tanjong Pagar Station entered the pages of history.

Source : New Straits Times 
Written by : Massita Ahmad


Stim berkepul di Stesen Tanjong Pagar

Image result for tanjong pagar station

Perhentian terakhir: Platform stesen keretapi yang terkenal di Singapura kaya dengan sejarah, kekecewaan dan kehilangan.

Perasaan saya bercampur baur ketika melihat Stesen Tanjong Pagar yang bersejarah buat pertama kali.

Stesen Tanjong Pagar terletak di Keppel Road, Singapura digazetkan sebagai lambang negara pada April 8, 2011 oleh Singapore Presevation of Monuments Board.

Dibina pada tahun 1929 oleh sebuah syarikat Perancis, stesen Tanjong Pagar mengingatkan saya stesen keretapi di Helsinki, Finland.

Apabila saya dan empat sahabat mengambil keputusan untuk melawat stesen ini, kami berasa terkejut apabila mendapati stesen telah ditinggalkan.

Kami memilih untuk tiba awal di stesen Tanjong Pagar bagi mengelak kesesakan orang ramai. Momumen bersejarah yang berusia 85 tahun ini hanya dibuka kepada orang ramai ketika hari cuti umum sahaja.



Bangunan yang mengagumkan ini pernah menjadi lokasi untuk pelbagai acara penting seperti Green Corridor Run, larian maraton yang diadakan sepanjang 10.5km koridor landasan keretapi dari Stesen Tanjong Pagar ke Stesen Bukit Timah.

Stesen ini seolah-olah ditinggalkan sekiranya tiada sebarang aktiviti diadakan.

Sebelum kami memulakan lawatan kami, saya sempat berbual dengan seorang orang lama yang memberitahu saya bahawa Stesen Tanjong Pagar ini akan sentiasa berada di hatinya. 

Beliau berkata stesen ini bukan sahaja mengingatkan beliau kembali perjalanan ke dan dari republik ini ketika beliau muda, ia turut mengingatkan beliau masakan India yang dijual di dua buah kedai makan di situ.

PLATFOM PEMISAH

"Setiap kali kami ingin ke Malaya, kami akan tiba awal di stesen ini untuk menikmati makanan yang dijual di sana.

"Bunyi desing disertai dengan bunyi tiupan wisel dan serombong asap keretapi menghangatkan lagi suasana ketika menikmati makanan," beliau berkata sambil mengimbas kembali suasana dahulu.

Saya percaya, tempat makan yang beliau nyatakan telah lama hilang. Sambil berjalan-jalan di stesen itu, saya terlihat papan tanda yang lusuh di salah satu dinding stesen yang mengiklankan tempat makan yang diusahakan oleh adik-beradik Hasan.

Stesen ini pernah menjadi saksi kekecewaan dan kehilangan. Menurut lelaki yang kami temui tadi, beliau melihat kesan pemisahan Malaya dan Singapura pada tahun 1965.

"Saya menyaksikan keluarga, kawan malah pasangan kekasih berpisah di platfom stesen ini," katanya. Ini membuatkan saya membayangkan bagaimanakah situasi pada masa itu.

"Air mata mengalir, ramai orang berpelukan dan ada melambai selamat tinggal," beliau berkata membuatkan saya mengimbas kembali suasana ketika itu.

Imbasan perbualan saya dengan lelaki ditemui tadi diganggu oleh bunyi bising oleh rakan saya di platfom yang sunyi. 

Rakan saya mula mengambil swafoto dengan pelbagai gaya termasuk tidur di landasan keretapi.

"Kami mahu jadikan muka depan album," mereka kata sambil berdiri di atas landasan keretapi besi yang telah disinari dengan matahari dan dibasahi dengan hujan bertahun-tahun lamanya.

LATAR BELAKANG MENARIK

Dahulu penumpang boleh diringi oleh sanak saudara hingga ke platform dengan membeli tiket platform berharga 20 sen, namun sejak Dis 18, 1988, hanya penumpang dibenarkan memasuki platform.

Sebelum stesen ini ditutup, terdapat sebuah kedai buku lama bernama Habib Railway Book Store yang telah beroperasi sejak tahun 1936.



Besebelahan kedai buku Habib Railway Book Store terdapat sebuah kedai pengurup wang juga diusahakan oleh pemilik sama.

Terdapat juga sebuah hotel yang mempunyai 34 buah bilik di stesen tiga tingkat ini. Ia telah beroperasi selama enam dekad oleh ahli perniagaan bernama Lim Jit Chin dan keluarganya.

Semasa kegemilangannya, tetamu hotel ini termasuk golongan diraja Malaysia.

Pada tahun 1992, Lim menerima pengiktirafan dari Guinness Book of Records sebagai orang kedua paling lama mengusahakan hotel sepanjang hotel itu beroperasi.

Saya berharap dapat melihat bahagian dalam bangunan hotel, akan tetapi bangunan ini telah dikunci.

Stesen Tanjong Pagar ditutup setelah Keretapi Tanah Melayu bersetuju untuk mengosongkan stesen ini dan mengalihkan operasi ke Woodlands Train Checkpoint.

Sebagai ganti, Malaysia akan diberikan enam bidang tanah di republik tersebut yang akan dibangunkan bersama-sama dengan kerajaan Singapura.  

Pada pukul 11 malam pada Jun 30, 2011, Sultan Johor Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Iskandar memandu keretapi terakhir keluar dari Stesen Tanjong Pagar. Lipatan sejarah yang disaksikan oleh rakyat kedua-dua negara.

Menjelang tengah malam, hak milik stesen diserahkan kepada Kerajaan Singapura dan Stesen Tanjong Pagar memasuki halaman sejarah.


Diterjemah oleh : Teratai Melur

E-mel : terataigenius@gmail.com


* Jika memerlukan perkhidmatan terjemahan, sila e-mel butiran ke alamat e-mel tertera di atas. Terima kasih.